Treatment of pruritus associated with allergic dermatitis in dogs; treatment of clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis in dogs.
Apoquel contains the active ingredient Oclacitinib (as oclacitinib maleate) and is an immunomodulatory agent, which is neither a steroid nor an NSAID, nor related to cyclosporine. Its unique mode of action inhibits the Janus Kinase (JAK) molecule. Apoquel works by inhibiting the biochemical cascade that initiates the signal that triggers an itch response and decreases the inflammation associated with allergic dermatitis.
Apoquel is available in 3.6 mg, 5.4 mg or 16 mg off-white, caplet-shaped tablets. The tablets are scored and can easily be halfed for the right dose for your dog. Apoquel is available in plastic bottles of 100 tablets.
Use in dogs less than 12 months of age and less than 3 kg bodyweight is not recommended. The safety of the drug has not been studied in breeding male dogs, or in pregnant or lactating female dogs and is not recommended for use in these subgroups. Do not use in dogs with evidence of immune suppression, or in dogs with hypersensitivity to oclacitinib or any of the excipients. The most commonly reported abnormal clinical signs during the first 30 days of treatment were pyoderma, diarrhoea, vomiting, dermatitis, otitis, anorexia and lethargy. Beyond Day 30, additional abnormal signs included histiocytoma, cystitis, dermatomycosis, lipoma, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection (UTI) and hypothyroidism. Changes in clinical pathology were restricted to a small increase in cholesterol and a small decrease in mean leukocyte count. Neither of these changes appeared clinically significant. Apoquel modulates the immune system and may increase the animal's susceptibility to infection and the development of papillomas. Dogs should be monitored by your veterinarinan for the development of infections. The effect on sub-clinical neoplastic conditions is unknown.
Apoquel is a registered trade mark of Zoetis Inc. or its subsidiaries. ACVM No. A10963. RVM; Available only under Veterinary Authorisation.
Gadeyne C, Little P, King VL, Edwards N, Davis K, Stegemann MR. Efficacy of oclacitinib (Apoquel®) compared with prednisolone for the control of pruritus and clinical signs associated with allergic dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Australia. Vet Dermatol. 2014;25(6):512–e86.
Cosgrove SB, Wren JA, Cleaver DM, et al. Efficacy and safety of oclacitinib for the control of pruritus and associated skin lesions in dogs with canine allergic dermatitis. Vet Dermatol. 2013;24(5):479-e114.
Cosgrove SB, Cleaver DM, King VL, Gilmer AR, Daniels AE, Wren JA, Stegemann MR. Long-term compassionate use of oclacitinib in dogs with atopic and allergic skin disease: safety, efficacy and quality of life. Vet Dermatol.2015;26(3):171-e35.
Gonzales A, Bowman J, Fici G, Zhang M, Mann D, Mitton-Fry M. Oclacitinib (Apoquel®) is a novel Janus kinase inhibitor with activity against cytokines involved in allergy. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. In press.
Aleo MM, Galvan EA, Fleck JT, et al. Effects of oclacitinib and prednisolone on skin test sensitivity [abstract]. Vet Dermatol. 2013;24(3):297